Secret Management in the Cloud

I have been using Azure Key Vault for secret management for the last two or three years in my projects or advice my peers, client, and colleagues I work with to do so. Azure Key Vault is a service that provides storing and managing secrets with policies and the ability to access them using .NET code. Moreover, it is not just .NET yet also a service principal that can access it to get a secret for establishing a connection or a pipeline. The secrets can be API keys, connection strings, credentials, certificates, etc. I like to discuss a secret management use case in this blog post and dive into its details.

Use case Key Vault and D365 FO Business Events

In a recent project regarding unlocking data from a Dynamics 365 Finance and Operations (FO) instance, I leveraged the concept of Business Events, where a Logic App subscribes to a specific event published on a custom Event Grid Topic. Let me further explain the scenario and where Key Vault comes into play. Below you see a diagram of integration between D365 FO and third party system. The latter receives data from D365 based upon a specific business event.

D365 FO Business Events

Within D365 FO, you can define a destination for a business event. As shown in the diagram, the destination is an Event Grid Topic. When following the Microsoft documentation of Business Events and Event Grid, you will notice that a Key Vault is required to keep the access key of the Event Grid Topic as a secret. Furthermore, you will need to create a so-called App registration in

Azure Active Directory. Azure App registrations are a simple and effective way to configure authentication and authorization workflows for many client types. In this case, a client identifying D365 – allowing access to the Key Vault instance to extract the access key for the custom Event Grid Topic.

Once the app registration is in place, the next step is to add it to the access policies in the Key Vault instance. The registration represents D365, and it needs access to the Key Vault to extract the access key for the Azure Event Grid topic. The app registration only requires the Get and List secret permissions to retrieve the Key Vault secrets.

The endpoint configuration is the next step when the app registration and policy are in place, the custom Event Grid topic is available, and its access key is a secret in Key Vault. The screenshot below shows the configuration of an actual endpoint (destination) for the events – the custom Event Grid topic.

Business Event Endpoint Configuration

For configuring the endpoint (destination), you need to provide a name. So first, the endpoint type is filled in by default, followed by the endpoint URL (destination endpoint – Event Grid topic URL) and then the details for the Key Vault. These details are the client id of the app registration, its secret, the DNS name of the Key Vault instance, and key vault secret name – which has the secret, i.e., access key to the custom Event Grid topic. And finally, you can press Ok for the creation of the endpoint. You can subsequently attach the endpoint to the necessary business event and activate it when the endpoint is created.

Once the endpoint is active and a specific business event is attached to the endpoint, the event will end up with the subscriber – Logic App. An example of a business event is shown below:


  “BusinessEventId”: “PurchaseOrderConfirmedBusinessEvent”,

  “ControlNumber”: 5637365024,

  “EventId”: “9D42A382-12E8-48F6-9BB2-29A1G4E39773”,

  “EventTime”: “/Date(1642759229000)/”,

  “LegalEntity”: “fnl1”,

  “MajorVersion”: 0,

  “MinorVersion”: 0,

  “PurchaseJournal”: “PO1-002342-11”,

  “PurchaseOrderDate”: “/Date(1642723200000)/”,

  “PurchaseOrderNumber”: “PO1-002342”,

  “PurchaseType”: “Purch”,

  “TransactionCurrencyAmount”: 1553.46,

  “TransactionCurrencyCode”: “EUR”,

  “VendorAccount”: “IFF1095”


The Logic App can use the details to retrieve more information (through OData calls) about the purchase order in this case. And as shown in the diagram, send the enriched json to a service bus queue to handover the another Logic App to transform it into an XML to be sent to an application Basware (provider of software for financial processes, purchase to pay, and financial management).

Managing Key Vault

To properly set up the process around Key Vault and secrets, the administrator (Azure Ops) is responsible for creating the app registration. The administrator will make the app registration and manage the Key Vault. Moreover, the person is also the one in my view that does the endpoint configuration. Therefore, the integration developer will only need to connect the Logic App to the Event Grid topic. Similarly, the SFTP connection requiring credentials or certificates can also leverage the Key Vault and require the same administrator.

The diagram below shows what the administrator can do regarding the app registration and managing the Key Vault instance. Also, the authentication process is shown from the application side – in our case, creating the endpoint from D365. Finally, D365 will use the app registration to authenticate against Azure AD to retrieve a token necessary to access the key vault secret.

Key Vault Management

I like to point here regarding this scenario that business events might need to be set up again when a database refresh is done. Note that when the endpoint configuration fails, you can see an error like:

Unable to get secret from Key Vault DNS: <dns of the key vault instance> Secret name: <name secret>

In that case, either the app registration client id or secret is wrong, or worse, the app registration is expired (the error messages will not tell you that!). An app registration expires (the max is two years). Hence, be aware that the events when the app registration is expired will not reach the Event Grid topic, and errors will occur on the D365 side. Therefore, I recommend monitoring the expiration for the app registration, and also, the secrets can have an expiry date – so keep an eye on that too!

Other Cloud Public Cloud Providers

Interestingly, Azure is not the only public cloud platform with a secret certificate and key management service. For example, AWS actually has three services – AWS Secrets Management, AWS Certificate Manager, and AWS CloudHSM. With AWS Secrets Manager, users can manage access to secrets using a fine-grained set of policies, control the lifecycle of secrets, and secure and audit secrets centrally. Furthermore, this is a managed service with a pay-as-you-go model available in most AWS regions. Sound familiar? Azure Key Vault is similar, right? Almost, yet Key Vault has most of the capabilities found in the three earlier mentioned AWS Services.

What about the Google Cloud Platform? Well, on GCP, you will find Secret Manager, which also enables users to store and manage secrets, including policies and rotation. Furthermore, the service offers management of certificates. And lastly, the public cloud has a separate service for key management with Key Management Service (KMS).

1 thought on “Secret Management in the Cloud

  1. Pingback: My Azure Security Journeyso far | Cloud Perspectives

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